We hate the tiny swollen thing that appears on your skin every then and now. Sometimes it stays for a longer duration and leaves an ugly scar behind too! Acne is not only an obstacle to a healthy skin but also leads to lack of self esteem. The first and foremost rule to cure acne is never ever try to prick it because that would lead to getting it worst. Follow a proper cleansing routine and wash your face twice a day. Use skin friendly and mild products. Try not loading your face with multiple products and use as less makeup as possible.
If you’re looking for natural acne remedies and wondering how to get rid of acne scars, you can try the following acne home remedies
1. Try Honey- Honey is a natural and mild antibiotic and contains anti bacterial properties which can help in reducing inflammation and treating acne. Apply a small amount of honey directly onto your acne and leave it overnight. This is one of the best home remedies for acne
2. Turmeric and Gram Flour- Turmeric is a natural healer and gram flour helps control the excess oil and also acts as an exfoliate. Take a table spoon of Gram flour and add half a tea spoon of turmeric powder in it. Mix it with water to make a smooth paste. Apply this to the skin affected with acne. Do this everyday will a week or two to notice visible difference.
3. Papaya- Mash up a raw papaya and apply it directly onto the acne. Leave it for 15-20 minutes and rinse it with warm water. If your skin has a tendency to get dry afterwards, you can use a light moisturizer. It one of the easy to use home remedies for acne.
4. Lemon- It is an easily available home remedy for acne. The Vitamin C in Lemon helps treating the acne and lighten the scars as well. Apply some freshly squeezed lemon juice over the acne and leave it for few minutes. Wash it with fresh water. If you have a sensitive skin, you can mix lemon with curd.
5. Tea Tree Oil- It is a highly effective remedy to treat acne fast and naturally. It is like a solvent that removes extra sebum and dead skin cell.s It also acts as an anti oxidant and helps treat acne. To use this method, use 1 part of tea tree to 9 parts of water and dab this mixture onto the problem areas. You may increase the strength gradually if required. If you’re wondering how to get rid of back acne, then this method is the answer to that also.
6. Banana Peel- The banana peels are consists of powerful substance called Lutein, an extremely powerful anti oxidant which helps reducing inflammation. Rub a banana peel on acne to reduce the redness and discomfort caused by it. Let it stay for at least 30 minutes before washing your face. It’s one of the easily available home remedies for acne.
7. Garlic- Garlic is full of anti bacterial properties which can help in reducing acne. Make sure you dilute it before you apply it over acne. Either mix some garlic juice in water or mash it and add some water or aloe gel in it. Apply it to the problem area and keep it for 10-15 minutes then wash it with fresh water.
8. Steam your face- Steam not only helps reducing acne by opening up the pores and flushing out impurities but also brings glow to your face. Boil some water in a pot and let it cool for a few seconds. Put your face over it and cover around with a towel to trap the steam. Do it once a day for maximum benefits.
9. Mint- It not exactly cures your acne but it surely helps to reduce inflammation and pain. The menthol present in it helps reduce redness and discomfort. Crush up the leaves to make a paste and leave for 5-10 minutes before rinsing off thoroughly with cold water.
10. Green Tea- Using green tea externally has proven to reduce acne to quite an extent.
There is an antioxidant in green tea called epigallocatechin-3-gallate or EGCG which was shown to reduce sebum production, inflammation, and bacterial growth in acne-prone skin-which are the main causes behind breakouts.
It is important to keep patience while using the above methods. These natural remedies for acne work gradually but the affects are long lasting. Meanwhile, be comfortable in your skin and stay stress free!
WHAT IS MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA?
Malignant Pleural mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer developing from cells of mesothelium, the protective lining covering many internal organs of human body, & affects the Pleura (outer lining of lungs & internal chest walls). This mainly occurs due to exposure of asbestos. Malignant Pleural mesothalioma covers 75% of all mesothelioma cases. It originates in pleura but can quickly spread to the outer chest wall, abdomen & heart. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES? Pleural mesothelioma is mainly caused by exposure to asbestos, an extremely durable, naturally occurring microscopic mineral, difficult to expel from the body once introduced to the internal tissues. Its sources can be: Asbestos mines & processing plants, Industrial Worksites, Shipyards, Military facilities & areas with active asbestos mines or naturally occurring deposits. Exposure mainly occurs at industrial jobsites. Less frequently, but patients have also been exposed to it outside workplace, like asbestos contaminated consumer products or asbestos coming home with clothes or skin of an asbestos worker. Rarely, but patients have encountered asbestos fibers in the environment too. HOW IT DEVELOPS?
- Once inhaled, asbestos fibers irritates the pleura (inner or outer pleura) causing inflammation.
- Due to inability of our body to expel all asbestos fibers, they cause development of pleural tissue into scar tissues.
- These scar tissues cause genetic damage & tumors.
- It develops from the lung linings & then gradually spreads to rest of the lung, chest wall or near diaphragm.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? The common symptoms of malignant pleural mesothalioma are:
- Chest Pain
- Persistent dry or painful cough or coughing up blood
- Lower back pain
- Shortness of breath
- Unexplained weight loss
- Swelling of face or arms
- Fever or sweating
- Tissue lumps in chest
As some symptoms are commonly associated with fever or respiratory issues, Malignant Pleural mesothelioma can be difficult to detect. But if the person has a history of exposure to asbestos, you should consult a good physician immediately. HOW TO TREAT? Based on diagnosis, stage of cancer & a few other factors, following are the primary treatment options available:
- SURGERY: Surgery offers the best chance of a long term survival, if the patient is in early stage of malignant pleural mesothalioma. So in this case, flowing two types of surgeries can potentially remove the cancer:
- Extra pleural Pneumonectomy (EPP) - Pleurectomy/Decortication(P/D) But if detected in later stage, surgery might not prove that helpful.
- CHEMOTHERAPY: Chemotherapy has been proven as the most effective treatment for the patients of malignant pleural mesothelioma. The only FDA approved drug to be used in chemotherapy is a mixture of Alimta & Cisplatin, though other clinical trials are under active attempts too.
- RADIATION: Radiation therapy is also applicable for malignant pleural mesothelioma patients, but it alone hardly is effective. So it is used in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.
Once the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma is done, you should see a good physician immediately. Should also take a second opinion on the same. In addition to this, you should try to get more information regarding all the aspects related & try to understand all the treatment options available so that you can decide which option would be best for you.
What is Sciatica?
Sciatica is a common type of pain affecting the sciatic nerve, a large nerve extending from the lower back down the back of each leg. The term sciatica describes the symptoms of leg pain that can be tingling, numbness or weakness. It that originates in the lower back and travel through the buttock and down the large sciatic nerve in the back of the leg. Sciatica (pronounced sigh-at-ih-kah) is not a medical diagnosis in itself but can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as a lumbar herniated disc, degenerative disc disease, or spinal stenosis.
What are the symptoms?
- Pain in the rear or leg which becomes worse while sitting
- Burning or tingling down the leg
- Weakness, numbness, or difficulty in moving the leg or foot
- A constant pain on one side of the rear
- A shooting pain that makes it difficult to stand up
Some people may have severe and debilitating pain from sciatica and in others the sciatica pain might be infrequent and irritating, but has the potential to get worse.
Seek immediate medical attention if you have progressive lower extremity weakness, numbness in the upper thighs, and/or loss of bladder or bowel control. They are strict signs of Sciatica.
What are the reasons for Sciatica?
Sciatica is caused by irritation of the root(s) of the lower lumbar and lumbosacral spine.
Additional common causes of sciatica are:
- Lumbar spinal stenosis (which causes narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower back)
- Degenerative disc disease (breakdown of discs, which act as cushions between the vertebrae)
- Spondylolisthesis (a condition in which one vertebra slips forward over another one)
Other things that may make your back pain worse include being overweight, not exercising regularly, wearing high heels, or sleeping on a overly soft mattress.
How to treat Sciatica?
For an ongoing pain, the condition may need to be treated so that it does not get worse over time.
There are readily available nonsurgical remedies and regular exercise which can help in relieving the pain.
Non-surgical treatments for sciatica
- Heat/Ice packs:You can use heat or ice packs or a combination of both to relieve the pain according to what relaxes you more.
- Pain Medications: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen, naproxen, or COX-2 inhibitors), or oral steroids can reduce the inflammation that is usually part of the cause of the pain.
- Epidural Steroid Injections for Sciatica: In acute pain cases, the steroid is injected directly into the painful area around the sciatic nerve to help decrease the inflammation that may be causing the pain.
Other treatments for sciatica
- Chiropractic/manual manipulation: Spinal adjustments and manual manipulation performed by appropriately trained health professionals, such as chiropractors and osteopathic physicians, are focused on providing better spinal column alignment, which helps treat number of underlying conditions that can cause sciatic nerve pain.
- Acupuncture: Acupuncture has been approved by the U.S. FDA as a treatment for back pain, and the National Institutes of Health has recognized acupuncture as effective in relieving back pain, including sciatica. Hair-thin needles (that are usually not felt) are inserted into the skin near the area of pain
- Massage therapy: Different types of massage therapies can be used for back pain, including increased blood circulation, muscle relaxation, and release of endorphins (the hormone which relieves pain).
Visit the following link to know about the circumstances in which you should opt for surgery.
Shedding those extra kilos can be one hell of a task specially with all the tempting snacks available these days. You try several ways to loose weight like running, going to gym, dieting and starving your self, resisting that blueberry cake you drool over! But here is a good news to all the foodies. Along with a regular work out session if you eat these foods, it’ll help you loose weight. Yes, you heard it right, now eating delicious food can be the key to weight loss. Following are the best weight loss foods available easily in the market.
1. Dark Chocolate indulgence:
Replace your milk chocolate with a bar of dark chocolate and eat it between meals guilt free. Dark chocolate curbs your desire of eating and the next time you’ll eat less making it one of the most delicious weight loss foods!
2. Go green with veggies-
If you’re already shrinking your nose over this, try making a puree of green leafy vegetables in a mixer and grinding them. Squeeze half a lemon into it and add rock salt to taste. You can sprinkle some black pepper and garnish it with coriander to make a tasty and healthy drink.
3. Eggs and Sausages-
Starting your diet with a protein rich food will help to curb your desire to eat calorie laden snacks throughout the day. Prefer to cook your eggs without using oil. It makes one of the best breakfasts to go start the day energetically
This high protein food helps you feel full for hours with just a fewer calories making it top our list of wight loss foods for non vegetarians. It makes a delicious treat to the tongue as well.
5. Boiled Potato-
They have been blamed for there high carbohydrates content. But the fact is potatoes are full of a number of nutrients, specially potassium which makes them among great weight loss foods. The boiled potato diet has been followed by a number of people with good results. The fact is that it helps you feel full and lets you avoid calorie rich food.
Because protein is the best answer to loose that extra weight. Choose Tuna which which is canned in water not oil.
7. Avocadoes and berries-
They contain fiber and potassium which are essential nutrients and as compared to other fruits which are full of carbohydrates, avocados are rich in healthy fats. All the berries are antioxidants rich which help in cleansing out your system and bring a glow on your skin as well.
Nuts are also rich in good fats which are friendly for your body. Because of there protein content, they make a healthy snack option. Next time you feel like grabbing a slice of cake, chew on to a handful of nuts instead!
9. Chilly Pepper-
Yes, chilies can also contribute in weight loss. They contain a substance called capsaicin, which has been shown to help reduce appetite and increase fat burning in some studies. You can add it while cooking other weight loss foods like salmon,potatoes etc for added benefits. However, it might not have much affect on people who are used to eating spicy food.
We’re not telling you to top off your food with coconut oil because it still has calories. What you can do is to replace your other cooking oils with coconut oil which is rich in some fatty acids proven to reduce calories making it a fabulous choice among weight loss foods.
11. Full fat Yogurt-
This a among the tasty weight loss foods which helps improve the digestion and maintain good metabolism. Having a healthy gut may help prevent bloating and leptin resistance, which is the main hormonal driver of obesity.
12. Lemon for Vitamin C boost-
Having a glass of lemon water twice a day will provide you the necessary Vitamin C which helps in maintaining good digestion and metabolic rate. You may add honey for extra benefits.
All the above mentioned foods are healthy and free of any side effects but make sure you’re not allergic to any of them. To attain visible results, follow a healthy diet, free from sugar and carbohydrates along with regular exercise.
Anxiety is an emotion which we all feel at a number of occasions. It’s natural to feel anxious or stressed before you have an exam, a stage performance, an interview, or any other important event where you have the pressure on yourself to do well. Anxiety can also be the result of other factors such as stress, fear, depression, low self-esteem, lack of confidence etc. Momentarily anxiety is healthy as it helps you focus and an healthy amount of stress helps to perform better. But if the anxiety persists for longer duration then it needs to be controlled.
You’ll find a number of articles which will tell you how to deal with anxiety but implementing the same can take a little more patience and practice. Here we’re mentioning a few ways in which you can get over anxiety:
To prevent anxiety from occurring, first of all eliminate anxiety inducing foods from your diet such coffee, sugar, alcohol. Try to decaffeinate your mornings by substituting coffee with juices, green tea etc. This will be difficult initially but once you get used to it, you’ll see the difference. We generally have tendency to grab a chocolate, pastry etc to lift up our mood. It sure helps temporarily but in a while it it’ll lead to lower emotions. The same goes with Alcohol, the hangover can lead to worst mood conditions.
Eat foods which are rich in antioxidants such as strawberries and other berries, dark chocolate, green leafy vegetables and other foods which are high in minerals like fish, bran etc. These foods are the ultimate answer to the question how to deal with anxiety.
Try exercises which can help you relieve stress preferably outdoor exercises like running, jogging, biking etc. A healthy mind resides in a healthy body. You may also try yoga, consult an expert for various yoga positions.
Mediation has been proven to relieve stress and anxiety in a lot of people. Try to meditate for as long as you can till you feel better. It helps to distract your mind from the worries, problems which are leading to anxiety and calms you down. Use dim light and peaceful environment while meditating. You can also play meditation music which will help you concentrate.
Think of something which you really enjoy doing and which makes you happy. It can be a hobby like singing, dancing, painting etc or watching a comedy show that you love. Take a long shower if you like. Make a decision to concentrate on the activity and not think about the stressors.
Most of the things you’re worrying about right now won’t even matter in long duration so take a break for yourself. Don’t think about past or future and enjoy the present moment. Life is a blessing and enjoy till it lasts.
Cortisol is an hormone which is responsible for causing anxiety. If you’re not getting enough sleep, this hormone is produced so take enough sleep and maintain a balanced sleep cycle. Melatonin is a hormone your body creates to help you fall asleep. Avoid your phone, laptop, and television in the hour before you go to bed. These are the anxiety and also prevent proper Melatonin production in your body because of the bright light they put off.
Remember one thing that nothing lasts forever not even the troubles, problems or stress. Time heals everything so live in the present moment and stay positive.
Its really annoying to suffer from cough specially when you have to attend a lecture, an office meeting or any other daily event. You don’t want to be the center of attention when other people are silent and you’re the coughing. Cough is a very common health problem these days due to bad lifestyle, pollution etc. Coughing can also be due to a viral infection, common cold, flu, and smoking or health problems such as asthma, tuberculosis, and lung cancer. The symptoms include, a sore throat, difficulty in swallowing food or even water in worst cases, congested chest and chest pain. Instead of taking pills and trying the drowsy cough syrups which may leave side effects, try these natural and effective cough remedies which can help you relieve cough. This only takes a few ingredients commonly available in your kitchen.
Take a glass of water and bring it to boil, pour it in a glass and let it cool down for a few seconds. Squeeze a half lemon into it and add 1 table spoon of honey. Drink this mixture slowly like tea. The Vitamin C in lemon helps fight the infection while honey works as a naturally soothing and anti bacterial agent. Take this mixture twice a day.
You may sip on to 3-4 cups of green tea at an interval of a few hours in a day. The warmth of the green tea will soothe your throat and also help you build immunity to fight infections. For extra effects, you may squeeze a lemon or boil a ginger into it.
Thyme is one of the best cough remedies which is easily available in the kitchen or the nearby grocery store. The compounds present in Thyme leaves help reduce the inflammation and relax the throat muscles. To make a tea, mix 2 teaspoons crushed leaves in 1 cup boiling water, cover, then steep for 10 minutes and strain.
Both of these ingredients work wonder as cough remedies. When put together, it can help relieve chronic coughs and congested chest as well. Grate or cut fresh ginger into small pieces and add it to one tea spoon of honey. Chew this mixture properly and than swallow it. The sweetness of honey will compensate the pungent taste of ginger. However, the taste is worth the relief you get after having it.You may repeat this 2-3 times a day.
Another quick and easy method among the cough remedies includes this easily available ingredient. To use this method, boil 2-3 teas spoons of flax seeds in water until the water becomes thick. Strain this water and add lemon and honey to it. Take 1 tablespoon or as needed.
Black pepper contains elements which stimulates the circulation and mucus flow. Honey is a natural cough reliever and mild antibiotic. To make the tea, place 1 teaspoon of freshly ground black pepper and 2 tablespoons of honey in a cup. Fill with boiling water and let steep, covered, for 15 minutes. Strain and sip as needed. This is among the cough remedies which is most suited for mucus coughs and isn’t suitable for dry coughs.
These two amazing spices are easily available in the kitchen and are one of the proven cough remedies. To prepare the remedy, take 1 tea spoon of turmeric, 1 tea spoon of black pepper, few cinnamon sticks and 1 tea spoon of honey. Boil this mixture and have it daily.
What causes upper back pain?
There could be numerous factors resulting in the upper back pain which include,
• Lifting heavy objects resulting in stretching of the muscles
• Continuing high level of stress
• Sitting for too long in the same posture, specifically in wrong posture
• Not exercising enough, or too much of exercise with wrong technique
Not only the the above factors, but the upper back pain can also be the result of some medical conditions related to spine, including a slipped disc, trapped nerve, rheumatism or ‘wear and tear’ arthritis of the spinal joints in the neck and thoracic (chest) vertebrae.
How exercise can help?
Exercising can help relieve the stress in muscles and thus relieving the upper back pain. Following are the exercises you can do which will help in reducing the pain.
1. Lying Knee Twist
Lie down on a flat surface with your legs straight. Now bend the right knee and cross it over the other knee so that it touches the ground on the other side. Hold it for 20 seconds then slowly move it back to the starting point. Repeat the same with the other leg. Repeat this exercise 3 to 4 times and it’ll help strengthen your paraspinal muscles and the abdominal muscles thus, reducing the upper back pain.
2. Yoga Cat pose
Start off by kneeling on your knees in such a way that your hands are below your sholders and your knees straight to your hips. Inhale and round your back like a cat, tightening your core muscles. Now exhale and arch your spine. Hold each position for about 10 seconds and repeat the process 10 times.
3. Knee to Chest exercise
Lie down on a flat surface and relax yourself. Now slowly bend your knees and bring it closer to your chest, hold it there for 20-30 seconds then slowly move it back to the floor. Repeat this stretch 3-4 times alternatively with each leg.
This exercise will help to align your pelvis while stretching the lower back and rear end muscles
4. Piriformis Seated Stretch
Sitting with a straight back, cross your left leg over your right leg placing your foot next to your thigh and tuck your right leg in towards your buttocks. Place your right arm on your leg as shown in the picture and slowly ease into a stretch. Be sure to keep your back straight and chest lifted. Hold for 20 seconds and alternative sides, three times.
5. Restful pose
Position yourself on the floor on hands and knees with your knees just wider than hip distance apart. Turn your toes in to touch and push your hips backwards bending your knees. After this, extend your arms forward fully and allow your head to rest on to the ground in a relaxation position. Hold this pose for 20 seconds and slowly return to starting position. Repeat three times.
6. The Cobra Stretch
Start by lying down on a flat surface with your abdomen touching the ground. Place your forearms and elbows flat on the ground. Slowly, push your body in upward direction such that your weight lies on your forearms and hold the position for 10 seconds. Return to the starting position and repeat 5 times.
Following these exercises on regular basis can not only relieve but help strengthen the muscles and prevent upper back pain form occurring again.
In case you are suffering from back pain over and over again, there is every possibility to find a cure. From research and feasibility study, it is clear that back pain remain second on the list after headache. It is also known as the second neurological disorder in the United States. In case you experience any back pain stress, ensure to contact your medical expert. This will help you know the actual cause of the back pain quickly. Your medical specialist will surely offer medications to relief you of the pain. Fortunately, there are several natural back pain relief methods that can be done by you. Is your quest on natural back pain relief methods? With the few points enumerated below, you are sure to discover natural back pain relief methods that deliver with care.
Back Pain Relief Methods
Do you know that stocking up on water remains a good thing? Water remains a good agent that can help to flush out your body’s toxins easily. Water will also help to provide natural lubrication for your joints. Drinking about 8-10 glasses of water on a daily basis will help to keep your body highly hydrated and balanced. Once your body is balanced and hydrated, there is every possibility to scare away any back pain. Even if you experience any back pain, with hydrated and balanced body from water, the sky and above will remain your limit of success. You can give it a try to see how water can help solve your back pain problem easily. Hydration remains a natural back pain relief method that delivers positive results.
Eating Food with Anti-inflammatory Features:
From research and feasibility study, it is clear that back pain can be caused by inflammation. Eating food with anti-inflammatory features will help to reduce any resulting pain at your back. There are certain foods that carry anti-inflammatory features with the quest to help reduce back pain problems. This can be found in the likes of beans, green leafy vegetables, bananas, papayas, avocados, apples, and just to mention a few.
Avoid Foods That Can Cause Inflammation:
There are certain foods that people suffering from constant back pain should avoid. Foods with inflammatory features should be completely prevented to overcome constant back pain. Foods such as pastries, dairy products, tea, alcohol, and chocolate should be completely avoided to overcome back pain problems. If you are able to keep to this feeding habit, back pain and other common attacks will never trouble your body again.
In case you are not use to walking, it is better to start practicing this exercise now. Research has shown that walking remains a good exercise to help overcome bad back. It is a good method to get your circulation functional and going. Walking can also help your joints to look balanced, fit and strong. If you are looking to gain strong bones, walking will surely help quickly. This activity can be squeezed into your lunch break. Ensure to take a short walk for about 5-10 minutes. Doing this on a daily basis will help you overcome any problem associated with back pain.
Having acne will result in automatic stigmatization for teenagers. When a grownup gets an outbreak it’s a whole other story on the aesthetic appeal. Acne is caused by hormonal changes which result from puberty, too much stress, lack of enough sleep, hectic lifestyle and bad eating habits among others. The main area of attack is the face but acne can also affect the chest, back and scalp. They can be really ugly regardless of where the acne pimples are located. The fact of the matter is that there is no definitive cure for acne but there are some acne treatments you can try at home to reduce the infection and even get rid of it entirely. Here are seven best natural acne treatment you can carry out at home.
1. Baking Soda
Made of sodium bicarbonate which has a basic pH, it works to unplug the skin pores and removes all dead skin. It balances the pH and acts to reduce inflammation and to disinfect the affected areas. The application is simply by making a paste from two spoonfuls of baking soda and rinsing after five minutes. You could also add a teaspoon of cinnamon powder, fresh lemon juice and honey into the paste as well.
2. Grape cleansing
This is quite simple and is among the very best cleansers that can get rid of your acne within no time. The application is by simply cutting three or so grapes in half and applying their juice all over your face and/ or any other affected areas. Then wash off with cold water and get a smooth acne free face.
3. Yogurt mask
Acne is as a result of too much oil on the skin and result from accumulation of sebum in a pore. A thin mixture of yogurt and brewer’s yeast applied as a mask will help reduce the oiliness of the skin so as to act as acne treatment. The thin mixture needs to be applied on the face and left for 15-20 minutes then rinse with warm water followed with cold water.
4. Toothpaste application
This is among the simplest acne treatments available. Simply apply toothpaste on the acne affected areas and before retiring to bed and leave it overnight. The mechanism of work is similar to that of baking soda.
This is an essential ingredient of many skin care products but you do not have to buy those for acne treatment. Simply using raw papaya on your skin for 20 minutes will remove dead skin cells and remove any excess fats causing acne. This will result in the much desired smooth and sift skin surface free of all acne.
A lemon contains glycolic acid which is used by many skin experts for skin exfoliation which m,akes it ideal for acne treatment. It will work to remove all traces of acne from your face through its exfoliating action. You can use a slice of lemon to rub your face or wash it using diluted lemon juice for best results.
7. Egg white
This is a simple and easily available method to get rid of acne. It is packed with proteins and vitamins which get rid of acne and rejuvenate the growth of normal skin. Their absorptive nature also allows them to mop off excess fats from your skin.